Symposia & Resources

Glass Worldwide Interview with GMIC Executive Director Bob Lipetz

The 2016 Sept/Oct issue of Glass Worldwide contains an interview with Executive Director Robert Weisenburger Lipetz who shares GMIC's activities and objectives.  Glass Worldwide has elected to designate the interview as one of the four articles that are featured on their home page on their website.  Visit their home page to download the PDF article.

The Glass Manufacturing Industry Council White Paper on Cullet Utilization and Opportunities

An overview of cullet recycling in the US with a review of opportunities to increase cullet recycling through technical developments.

Based on the latest available data and interviews with dozens of experts in every stage of the cullet chain of custody. This report follows cullet from consumers back to the glass plants with an analysis of the challenges at each processing step. A close look is presented of ways technical challenges could be addressed to increase the two glass manufacturing industry challenges of increased cullet supply and higher quality. Appendices provide up-do-date resource information on cullet recycling.

The Glass Manufacturing Industry Council White Paper on Cullet Utilization and Opportunities is funded entirely by the GMIC and is provided to all interested parties at no charge.

To download the PDF white paper, CLICK HERE.

Glass Industry Brochure

Screen Shot 2016-07-01 at 12.08.04 PMGMIC has published an informational/promotional piece on the glass industry that illustrates, in full color, the many aspects of glass: from its origins in nature through its evolution to its reality today as an integral part of every aspect of our life.  Produced through the cooperative efforts of Schott Glass Technologies, Corning, Inc., the Department of Energy, and the GMIC, this is the first brochure in this country to bring together all the wonders of glass for a variety of audiences: glass companies will provide to prospective and new employees; high schools and universities can use it in science courses and to introduce engineering students to the possibilities of glass; the general public will respond to the beauty and diversity of this ubiquitous product.

The cost is $120/case (120 pcs./cs) plus $17 S&H

Contact Us

Technical and Economic Assessment (TEA) Available at GMIC

October 2004

An in-depth look at the glass industry, tracing the history of current and developing melting technologies and describing the economic challenges the industry faces.  This comprehensive reference book was produced by the GMIC under contract to the Department of Energy.  Principal Investigators Phil Ross and Gabe Tincher interviewed representatives of over 90 companies and consulted hundreds of technical articles and patents to create this complete overview of our industry, its past and possible future!  Margaret Rasmussen of the Paul Vickers Gardner Glass Center, and former Editor of the "Glass Researcher", is Editor.

You can order the TEA for $15.00

Contact Us (add shipping charge of $6.50 U.S. and $13 non-U.S. applies).

International Bandwidth Analysis - Sustainability Study of US and European Glass Industry Carbon Constraints and Energy

Prepared by: Dr. Warren Wolf

Joint project of: Glass Manufacturing Industry Council and U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technology Program

Download at No Charge

A series of questions were submitted to leaders in both US and the European Glass Industry.  The focus of the questionnaire and this paper giving the results of the survey is to offer the Glass Manufacturing Industry Council/GMIC as well as the Industrial Technology Program/ITP in Glass within the US/DOE with an understanding of where the glass industry within the US presently stands with respect to issues around sustainability and in particular with respect to carbon constraints and its future implications on the glass industry as well as the anticipated issues in the industry around energy costs and availability.

This study is different from other recent work done for ITP-Glass in that it also considers a large body of responses from European Glass Leaders. In a sense this realizes two aspects: First GMIC is now opening its membership to all global glass manufacturers. Andsecond the issues of sustainability within the glass industry that arise from carbon constraints and the costs of energy and its availability are issues that will require global considerations if best solutions are to be found


The Shining Inferno - A Symposium on Glass Raw Materials


Christopher Hoyle, Vice President - Technical Director, Toledo Engineering Co., Inc.
Presented by the Glass Manufacturing Industry Council

From crystal-clear containers to the skin of a new high-rise office building, glass is a transparent, uniform and attractive material. It may not be obvious that its origin is a shining inferno where a mix of various minerals dug from the ground, perhaps collected from several continents, have been fused into a new entity. This symposium details the state of the art technologies as well as the challenges to glass manufacturers in selecting and processing raw materials for glass production.

Life cycle analysis of glass as a material that competes in our society with other materials is giving new attention to our raw materials. Major suppliers of minerals will be discussing the competing market forces involved in making best use of our mineral deposits, while keeping the costs to the glassmaker reasonable. Increasing quality demands on the glass, applies pressure for increasing purity of our raw materials and increasing benefaction of what we can dig out of the ground. New glass products, including solar cells, make it critical to reduce trace contaminants such as iron oxide or minimize their effect. Possible use of alternate materials can help reduce energy usage and the carbon footprint of our glass plants. The logistics of collecting the hundreds of tons of raw materials needed each and every day will be discussed. New environmental restrictions are also forcing us to reconsider the choice of raw materials we have traditionally used.

Click here to view Speaker Abstracts and Biographies.  To view presentation click on title name.

Program 1 - Regulations Affecting Raw Material Selection - NOX, SOX, mercury, chlorine, cullet, cap and trade, reducing agents, selenium, etc.

Regulations Affecting Raw Material Selection  – As emission and safety regulations tighten, they may clash with a glassmaker’s traditional route to producing cost-effective and high-quality glass.   Alternate routes need to be defined. C. Phillip Ross, Glass Industry Consultant

Program 2 – Different Routes to the Same Glass  – Saving Energy/Carbon Footprint by Using Different Raw Materials to Reach Your Present Composition

Calumite Slag – Time to Look Again –  A review of how calumite slag is used worldwide and across glass sectors, with a focus on uses in the U.S.  Calumite can be used in the management of furnace emissions for quality improvements, increased furnace output, and reduction of greenhouse emissions. Mark A. Abraham, General Manager, Calumite Company, LLC

Alkaline Earths for Glass Manufacturing – You Have Choices  –  A range of alkaline earth products can supply the CaO/MgO component of your glass.  These products have widely differing physical and chemical properties that can help optimize your glass operation.  Burned lime and dolomite offer potential benefits in both transportation and your carbon footprint. John Elliott, Sales Manager, Lhoist North America 

Glass Batch Activation for Better Melting Properties The batch mixer can do more than just achieve homogeneity. Sequenced mixing facilitates early reactions and reduces dissolution times.  Pelletization brings traditional benefits at reduced costs. Tests show great potential. Dan Britton, North American Sales Manager, Eirich Machines, Inc

New Freedom in Raw Materials for High-Intensity Melters – We hear “A melter is not a mixer”.  But this is not the case for these melters with high shear and high-speed flows.  The kinetics of melting and reaching homogeneity are much different. Our paradigms about raw materials can be challenged. David Rue, Manager, Industrial Combustion Processes, Gas Technology Institute

Program 3 - Logistics – Transportation and handling of raw materials

Logistics Issues – There are many factors involved in the cost and reliability of having your raw materials in your silos when you need them and free from contamination. We will look at these factors and how they may change in the near future.  Some will just be happening to us, and others we can influence. Wayne Johnson, Manager Global Carrier Relations, Owens Corning

Program 4 - Cleaning Up Our Act – Opportunities for upgrading our raw materials for specialty products

Factors in US Sand Supply – Both glassmakers and raw material suppliers need profitability and sustainability.  Are there changes that would be good for both? We will examine the sand market and how glass fits into it. Some specifications are critical; some may offer flexibility. Greg Bedford, Technical Sales Manager, Unimin Corporation

Benefits of Glass Cullet and Factors Affecting Supply - Increasing cullet in batch reduces energy consumption and emissions.  Manufacturers require a reliable supply of clean and affordable cullet, but various factors impact supply and price including multiple glass recycling stakeholders and raw material pricing. Joe Cattaneo, Packaging and Recycling Communications Consultant

Selective Glass Batching Liquids from low-temperature eutectics can drain away from the sand during melting of a normal glass batch, delaying final silica dissolution, increasing retention time, and energy costs. This is avoided by choosing partial combinations of the raw materials and segregating them during initial melting phases.  Various combinations of agglomeration, particle size, and melting schedules can optimize the results.  Selective Batching introduces raw materials into the melter in a manner that controls the raw material reactions within the batch during melting.  William M. Carty, CSL Materials, LLC

Wrap Up – Summary review, take home lessons learned. Douglas Davis, PhD, Senior Glass Technologist, Toledo Engineering Co., Inc.

2011 GMIC Glass Recycling in America Challenges and Opportunities Symposium

Kenneth Lovejoy, VP, Environment, Health & Safety, O-I, Inc.
A Glass Manufacturing Industry Council Symposium

Hilton Savannah DeSoto, Savannah, GA

Glass Recycling in America has achieved only a fraction of its potential.  Glass is the only common product material with an endless life cycle, yet most glass in the U.S. is not reused.  Barriers to a more robust recycling utilization include both technical and economic barriers.  Many constituents have an interest in the state of glass recycling, including city and state governments, waste processors, glass industry suppliers as well as glass manufacturers.  This symposium brings all stakeholders together for the common purpose of understanding how to achieve a more robust and successful recycling of glass in America.

Click here to view Speaker Abstracts and Biographies.  To view presentation click on title name.

Life Cycle Assessment of Container Glass: Margaret Zahller, Senior Analyst, PE Americas

Understanding the True Valuation of Cullet: Anne E. House, Sustainability Portfolio Cullet Program Leader; O-I, Inc. and Peter Walters, Vice President, Purchasing and Distributions, Verallia/Saint-Gobain Containers

An Industry System for Quality Measurement: Kathleen Flight, Manager of Cullet and Recycling Procurement, Verallia/Saint-Gobain Containers

Modern Technologies for Cullet Processing: Gerhard Glawitsch, Head of Sales - Environmental Technology, BT Wolfgang Binder GmbH

State Government Perspective on Glass Recycling - Panel Discussion: Moderated by Daniel K. Steen, Vice President Government Affairs, O-I;

The Role of Government in Recycling-Georgia's Perspective: Gloria Hardegree, Executive Director, Georgia Recycling Coalition

State Perspective on Glass Recycling: Scott Mouw, Chief of Community and Business Assistance North Carolina State Recycling Program; and Frank Killoran, National Business Development Manager, Pratt Industries

Panel Discussion: Moderated by Kenneth Lovejoy, VP Environment, Health & Safety, O-I, Inc.; All Faculty including Bill Waltz, Chairman and CEO, Strategic materials; Curtis Bucey, President and COO, Strategic Materials; David Hudson, Vice President Government Affairs, Strategic Materials and Steve Bowles, Owner, Reflective Recycling

2010 GMIC Waste Heat Management Workshop

GMIC, TNO and Glass Trend WHM Workshop
University Plaza Hotel - Columbus, Ohio

Waste Heat Management (WHM) has been identified as one of the most significant opportunities for reducing costs, energy usage, and emissions in the glass industry today.  Yet, for a number of reasons, besides numerous combustion air preheating technologies in place in the United States today, minimal use is being made of existing or developing approaches to recover waste heat and use it for other beneficial purposes.  An"Industrial Bandwidth" study completed in 2007 clearly demonstrates the available savings from effective waste heat management to our industry. 

Session 1 - Waste Heat Management Applied to Process Inputs

Session Chair - Scott Ryan
Corning Incorporated

Session 2 - Waste Heat Recovery Boilers
Session Chair - Mike Strohscher
Libbey, Inc.

Workshop Proceedings CD
Attendees no - charge
GMIC Members $35.00   Non-Members $55.00
Contact Us

2009 GMIC Energy Efficiency Workshop

Screen Shot 2016-06-29 at 8.25.35 PMEnergy Efficiency in Glass Melting - Various Approaches to Energy Efficiency in Glass Furnaces - November 15, 2009

University Plaza Hotel - Columbus, Ohio

Energy Efficiency (EE) in glass melting operations continues to be of major interest to our industry!  For the second time in three years the GMIC workshop held at the conclusion of the Glass Problems Conference in Columbus, Ohio, focused on various approaches to improve the Energy Efficiency in glass furnaces.  Around 100 attendees hear 8 speakers from 4 countries presenting their ideas and experience with reducing energy.

Click here to see abstracts and speaker bios.

To order the Energy Efficiency Workshop CD Contact Us.

Cost, including international postage is: $25.00 for GMIC members, and $35.00 for non-members.

Building a Sustainable Global Glass Industry Workshop

Rising Energy Costs, Environmental Constraints, Globalization, Technical Challenges:  Al of these raise questions regarding viable paths forward for the Glass Industry.  International leaders and experts in these areas shared their views on these and other issues and participated with the audience in open discussion regarding possible strategic directions we can take to ensure our industry's long term sustainability.

The CD contains all presentations as well as a summary document reviewing the main points of each presentation and outlining actions to be taken by the GMIC, its members, and the broader international glass industry.

To view the the full agenda Click here ;  speaker biographies and abstracts Click here .  To order your copy of the CD Contact Us .  Cost, including transportation $25.00 for GMIC members $35.00 for non-member.

Safety - It's Too Important to be Proprietary and Alternative Energies

Addressing Rising Prices and Carbon Constraints - Two Part Workshop November 6, 2008

This workshop CD contains presentations given at this workshop highlighting a wide range of approaches available to the glass industry to reduce its energy intensity, utilize alternative energy sources and finance capital costs of improvements

Additional sessions on leveraging government partnerships and the importance of safety in the glass industry were included in the day's activities

To view the full agenda, Click here;  speaker biographies and abstracts. Click here

To order your copy of the CD Contact Us Cost, including transportation $25.00 for GMIC members $35.00 for non-member.


Usable Glass Strength Workshop

Forming a Research Coalition - GMIC/DOE

In conjunction with the GOMD - May 20, 2010 - Corning, NY

Representatives of the Strategic Strength Team (SST) introduced the overall concept that we are proposing for an industry coalition.  In-depth discussion with participants led to refinements and improvements to the proposed structure.

To review GMIC Workshop Planning Documents click on the document title below

Participant Agenda

The Structure Concept Document - outlines the overall proposed program

"On Improving" Technical White Paper that provides a background to the glass strength program

Kurkjian Summary of White Papera short overview of the White Paper

Updated Information Brochure 

Glass Strength Program Moving into Action 2009

Click on the document title below to review meeting minutes and presentations made that day.

Interagency Stakeholder-Glass Strength Workshop Meeting Minutes

Research & Education in Glass - Lynette D. Madsen, National Science Foundation

The Future of Glass Strength and It's Potential Impact on Society - Michael Greenman

Opportunities for the Improvement of the Practical Strength of Oxide Glasses - C.R. Kurkijan

The Role of Coating and Other Surface Treatments in the Strength of Glass - Carlo Pantano


Glass Strength Symposium Speakers and Topics

Energy Management

Gas-fired Solutions for Tin Baths


Eclipse is a leading source for industrial process heating solutions, offering an extensive array of burners and systems for the glass industry. Recently, Eclipse installed gas-fired auxiliary heating systems in several tin bath operations to improve the heating processes. In the production of float glass, the tin bath section is... Read More

Tall crown furnace technology for oxy-fuel firing

Screen Shot 2016-06-29 at 11.00.55 PMAn advanced oxy-fuel fired furnace design has been proven to extend the life of silica crowns while achieving highfuel efficiency and low NOx and particulates emissions. H Kobayashi*, K T Wu*, G B Tuson*, F Dumoulin* and H P Kiewall** show us how.

Praxair, in collaboration with Heye Glas, has successfully implemented an advanced oxyfuel glass melting technology called “Tall Crown Furnace” technology, to reduce silica refractory corrosion, NOx emissions, SOx emissions and particulate emissions while maintaining the high heat transfer and energy efficiency of oxy-fuel glass melting... Read More 

Oxygen technologies for recovery and boosting of glass furnaces

Screen Shot 2016-06-29 at 11.10.22 PMNeil G Simpson* examines the options available for increasing furnace capacity to cope with changes in product demand.

Conventional glass melting furnaces have capacity restrictions due to their long operating periods and reliance on heat recovery devices. At the start of a campaign, which could last anywhere between five and 15 years, it is difficult to predict what changes will occur in product demand that might require a capacity increase.  Similarly, at the end of the furnace campaign there might be regenerator damage, which limits furnace capacity and requires capacity recovery. In both cases, oxygen can be used for both capacity boost and at least partial capacity recovery... Read More

A Fully Automatic Screening Apparatus

Screen Shot 2016-06-29 at 11.16.19 PMSpecial glasses need a long development phase before they can be manufactured. Labour-intensive melting processes, in which the properties and melting behaviour of these glasses are analysed, increase development expenses. The casting process is especially difficult to reproduce exactly. For some glasses even delays of only a few seconds in casting can influence their properties. Automating the process can reduce costs and improve results. Fraunhofer has developed a fully automatic screening apparatus which it claims can produce 20 different glass types within 20 hours, starting from a melting programme of two hours. This means that continuous observation of the process is not necessary. The apparatus starts with a robot taking one empty crucible at a time and placing it onto a mobile scale. Ten containers of raw material can make up a 100g glass batch, which is usually enough for the composition of most important glass properties. The robot can put two crucibles at a time into the furnace, which is run with a variable temperature programme to a maximum of 1700°C. At the end of the programme the furnace opens, the robot takes the crucible and pours the melt into preheated brass moulds. The empty crucibles are put down and the robot can start the whole process again, so that about 20 samples can run automatically. Contact Dr Bernhard Durschang, manager competence team glass, Fraunhofer Institute, Würzburg, Germany. Tel: +49 931 4100 304. Fax: +49 931 4100 399. Email: [email protected]

Gas For Glass – A New Approach

Screen Shot 2016-06-29 at 11.21.56 PMWhen Pilkington’s German plant needed to increase flat glass production, the company undertook a review of its on-site gas generation system. Gavin Whitlock* explains how an outsourced management and maintenance system was found.

On-site gas generation is nothing new to glass manufacturers as they seek to ensure economy of supply and ultra-high purity (UHP) in order to produce the clearest, most sought after flat glass product. However, increasingly competition is forcing some manufacturers to find a way to benefit from quality on-site UHP gas supplies without the responsibility for management and upkeep, so they can focus on core manufacturing activities... Read More

Development of a High Luminosity Flat Flame Burner

Screen Shot 2016-06-30 at 1.30.46 PMVal Smirnov* and Chet Allen* demonstrate how the design of a high luminosity burner can significantly reduce fuel consumption and NOx emissions.

Recent developments in oxy-fuel combustion technology show significant improvement in thermal efficiency of glass melting furnaces. Earlier generation air-gas and oxy-gas flames are a low luminosity burning jet, which forms nonuniform temperature and heat flux distributions. The flame appearance in the hot furnace is mostly semi-transparent, leading to poor radiant heat transfer to the load and decreased thermal efficiency... Read More

DeNOx oil and gas burners

Screen Shot 2016-06-30 at 1.35.08 PMAndreas Birle* describes how growing requirements for energy saving, NOx reduction and productivity in the glass melting process have encouraged the development of a new generation of DeNOx burners for heavy oil as well as for natural gas.

After several years of intensive development, there are now burner designs available that give energy savings and NOx reduction. The performance parameters and maintenance behaviours are an improvement on former designs and practices. The oil-burner design with exactly centralised oil and atomising flow creates a narrow shaped oil-dropdistribution. It avoids the typical NOx forming hot flame tail fire and achieves low turbulent and low temperature oil flame geometry, which saves energy, reduces NOx and extends burner maintenance cycles by up to six months... Read More

Combustion Under Control

Screen Shot 2016-06-30 at 1.43.12 PMThis article explains how a single premix unit feeding different burners can improve combustion efficiency.

Premix has been in industrial use over many years in glass forehearths, feeders, melting furnaces and lehrs, and brick firing tunnel kilns. It allows the proportion of air and gas to be precisely regulated by a constant mixer. With simple adjustments, this type of multigas equipment obtains a mixture of air and gases for all the burners that heat a given area of a furnace. A single premix unit, composed of a constant mixer and a BZR gas governor, can feed various burners working under the same set of conditions... Read More 

Forehearth Control For Electric Glassmaking

Screen Shot 2016-06-30 at 1.47.06 PMControlling resistance very quickly, coupled with changes in furnace design and operation can lead to improvements in operation and efficiency, explains George A Sites*.

Electric heating is used to boost the performance of an existing fossil fuel fired furnace and in some cases to provide all of the heating. The elimination of fossil fuels minimises many environmental issues and the electrical control of the melting process can be more efficient. The cost of electrical energy is also more stable than fossil fuels. If you can control the resistivity of molten glass you would have better results in glass temperature uniformity - the more uniform the glass temperature, the better the overall production results would be... Read More

The Challenge of Conventional Furnace Design

Screen Shot 2016-06-30 at 1.53.12 PMOne of the conclusions reached at the United Nations Climate Convention in Kyoto in 1997 was the need for self-regulation as a method of reducing greenhouse gas emission levels within a decade. By the year 2012 European Union (EU) countries will have to reduce their emissions by 8% from their 1990 level. EU authorities have defined their self-regulation programme so that EU countries will make individual contributions to the total amount of carbon dioxide reduction (or more precisely, the CO2 equivalent of a number of different greenhouse gases)... Read More

Conference Examines Highly Efficient Melting Methods

Screen Shot 2016-06-30 at 1.57.30 PMGlassmakers from 17 different countries attended the 13th Czech conference on glass melting.

The Czech Glass Society’s 13th conference on electric and other highly efficient ways of glass melting was held at Plzen, in the Czech Republic, in September. So successful was the event that the organisers had to find a larger venue at very short notice to accommodate the 140 people who came to find out more about the latest technologies. Electric melting uses energy that is often more expensive than gas, but uses less energy. It was patented as a technology in 1902 but the technique is thought to date back to 1899... Read More

EB Glass Melting Electrodes

Screen Shot 2016-06-30 at 1.59.56 PMThis article explains the use of recycled molybdenum for the manufacture of electron beam glass melting electrodes.

Molybdenum’s high melting point, resistance to sagging at glass bath temperatures, high electrical conductivity, and resistance to attack by most glasses make it an ideal material for furnace components. Its very slow and gradual dissolution in molten glass occurs without discoloration or other detrimental effects to the glass.

As well as electrodes, other glass processing components such as stirrers, pumps, bowl liners, wear plates and some moulds are made of molybdenum. Extruded molybdenum pipes are used in some plants to transport molten glass from one furnace to another. HC Starck supplies molybdenum electrodes and other components to customers throughout the world, from manufacturing and distribution sites in several countries... Read More

A System for Optimal Glass Furnace Control

Screen Shot 2016-06-30 at 2.05.03 PMGlass quality depends on several factors, such as the type of control system used for glass production. For simple processes with one input and one output, it is sufficient to have well tuned PID control loops, but for more complicated processes with several inputs and outputs, it is difficult to reach a high-quality control aspect by manual or PID control. The main problem with manual control is that there are large amounts of information related to the process behaviour, such as the interdependence between all inputs and outputs, dynamics of those relationships and outside influences, etc... Read More 

Barrier Walls: A New Approach

Screen Shot 2016-06-30 at 2.07.50 PMIn the past 10-15 years there has been a significant move in the glass container industry to adopt refractory barrier walls in the furnace area, often in conjunction with deep refiners. This approach states that the physical barrier of the wall forces the natural convection currents at the spring zone of the melter closer to the surface, thereby aiding refining and final melting prior to entering the refining area before the throat. This may well be true, but the problem arises when the barrier wall starts to erode during the course of the campaign. No matter what construction techniques are used - such as two rows of blocks with offset joints, special cooling from below in the construction of the floor to slow down wear, protective steps on either or both sides of the barrier wall - at the end of the campaign there is severe wear on the wall with large gaps at the vertical joints, or often no wall at all - certainly not an effective barrier... Read More

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